Paragraph, Words And Meanings

Paragraph, Words And Meanings

Topic Of The Day:-“ Breathing Clean”

Political will is integral to the tackling of India’s hazardous air pollution

An assessment of the quality of air across countries and in cities has come as a fresh warning to India on the levels of deadly pollutants its citizens are breathing. The IQ Air Visual 2018 World Air Quality Report published in collaboration with Greenpeace underscores that Delhi remains an extremely hazardous city to live in. The national capital exposes people to air containing annual average fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) of 113.5 micro-grams per cubic metre, when it should be no more than 10 micro-grams as per WHO guidelines. In fact, Gurugram, which borders Delhi, fares even worse with a PM 2.5 level of 135.8 micro-grams, while 15 of the 20 cities world-wide ranked the worst on air pollution metrics are in India. Delhi’s air quality has been making headlines for years now. Yet, measures to mitigate emissions have not moved into crisis mode: the launch this year of the National Clean Air Programme for 102 cities and towns, including the capital, talks only of long-term benefits of mitigation programmes beyond 2024, and not a dramatic reduction in near-term pollution. This has to change, and an annual target for reduction be set to make governments accountable. Achieving a reduction within a short window is not impossible if there is the political will to reform key sectors: transport, biomass and construction.The monitoring of air quality in real time across cities and towns in India is far from adequate or uniform. The evidence from Delhi, which is relatively more robust, has clear pointers to what needs to be done. The Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises learnt from a commissioned study last year that dusty sources such as roads, construction sites and bare soil added about 42% of the coarse particulate matter (PM 10) in summer, while in winter it was a significant 31%. Similarly, PM 10 from transport varied between 15% and 18% across seasons. Yet, it is the even more unhealthy PM 2.5 penetrating the lungs that causes greater worry. Vehicles contributed 18-23% of these particulates, while biomass burning was estimated to make up 15-22%, and dusty sources 34% during summer. These insights provide a road map for action. The Delhi government, which has done well to decide on inducting 1,000 electric buses, should speed up the plan and turn its entire fleet green. A transition to electric vehicles for all commercial applications, with funding from the Centre’s programme for adoption of EVs, should be a priority in cities. Cutting nitrogen and sulphur emissions from industrial processes needs a time-bound programme supervised by the Environment Ministry. These are priority measures to get urban India out of the red zone.


1) assessment

Meaning : the action of assessing someone or something(n).

Synonyms : appraisal

Antonyms : amnesty

Example : “the assessment of educational needs”

2) exposes

Meaning : make (something) visible by uncovering it(v).

Synonyms : bare

Antonyms : conceal

Example : “at low tide the sands are exposed”

3) mitigate

Meaning : make (something bad) less severe, serious, or painful(v).

Synonyms : alleviate

Antonyms : aggravate

Example : “drainage schemes have helped to mitigate this problem”

4) reform

Meaning : make changes in (something, especially an institution or practice) in order to improve it (v).

Synonyms : improve

Antonyms : damage

Example : “the Bill will reform the tax system”

5) adequate

Meaning : satisfactory or acceptable in quality or quantity(adj).

Synonyms : capable

Antonyms : inadequate

Example : “this office is perfectly adequate for my needs”

6) robust

Meaning : strong and healthy; vigorous(adj).

Synonyms : potent

Antonyms : impotent

Example : “the Caplan family are a robust lot”

7) estimated

Meaning : (of a value or number) roughly calculated; approximate(adj).

Synonyms : predicted

Antonyms : evaluates

Example : “an estimated cost of £1,000 million”

8) insights

Meaning : the capacity to gain an accurate and deep understanding of someone or something(n).

Synonyms : intuition

Antonyms : ignorance

Example : “his mind soared to previously unattainable heights of insight”

9) inducting

Meaning : admit (someone) formally to a post or organization(v).

Synonyms : inaugurate

Example : “arrangements for inducting new members to an organization”

10) transition

Meaning : the process or a period of changing from one state or condition to another(n).

Synonyms : conversion

Antonyms : decrease

Example : “students in transition from one programme to another”

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